KSA: Using the Knowledge, Skills and Abilities Model

Two mechanics in a garage working at a job that uses their skills, knowledge, and abilities.

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In the world of human resources and corporate education, the acronym KSA stands for Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities. It is most often used to define the requirements of a job opening and compare candidates when making a final selection. If you're looking for a job, a recruiter may be looking at your KSA profile.

KSA Background

Historically, the KSA framework was associated with the U.S. federal government. Its agencies applied the Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities model to its recruiting activities for many years, although the practice has lately been phased out in favor of resume-focused recruiting. 

That doesn't mean it has disappeared, however. If anything, the use of KSA is expanding to include assessments of training and coaching needs in an existing workforce. 

Defining Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

One of the criticisms of KSA is that it's easy to see those three terms as interchangeable or at the very least, overlapping. However, they are distinctly different dimensions of an individual's qualifications. 


Knowledge focuses on the understanding of concepts. It is theoretical and not practical. An individual may have an understanding of a topic or tool or some textbook knowledge of it but have no experience applying it. For example, someone might have read hundreds of articles on health and nutrition, many of them in scientific journals, but that doesn't make that person qualified to dispense advice on nutrition. 


The capabilities or proficiencies developed through training or hands-on experience. Skills are the practical application of theoretical knowledge. Someone can take a course on investing in financial futures, and therefore has knowledge of it. But getting experience in trading these instruments adds skills.


Often confused with skills, yet there is a subtle but important difference. Abilities are the innate traits or talents that a person brings to a task or situation. Many people can learn to negotiate competently by acquiring knowledge about it and practicing the skills it requires. A few are brilliant negotiators because they have the innate ability to persuade.


Knowledge and skills are best developed through training activities that incorporate theoretical learning and hands-on application of key concepts and tools. For instance, a person who wants to be a project manager must understand the key concepts of that role, such as scope, work breakdown structure, and critical path, but must also gain experience incorporating elements of those concepts into a real project.

Strengthening natural abilities is primarily a coaching challenge. Observation, feedback, and improvement can be applied to nurture abilities. 


The general criticisms of using a KSA framework for job applications or candidate evaluation tool include:

  • Long and sometimes redundant job descriptions
  • Complex and frustrating application processes
  • Confusion over the differences between the terms, especially skills and abilities 

Some job applications include a request to describe your KSA, usually in the form of a brief essay. Keep those three terms straight, and you'll be halfway there already.