How to Paint Abstracts From a Photo

Close up of mature male artist working on canvas
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Learn how to paint abstracts using a reference photograph as a starting point and source of inspiration with this tutorial.

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Using a Reference Photo as a Starting Point for Abstracts

Reference photos can provide a great starting point for abstract art.
Marion Boddy-Evans

Some people paint abstracts entirely from their imaginations but we find it essential to have something 'real' as the starting point. Something that gives you a direction to start working in, to kickstart the imagination.

This photo is one from our collection of abstract painting ideas. It's nothing fancy as far as photos go, merely two daisies, photographed from below against a blue sky. But it was the shapes that grabbed our attention.

So where would you start a painting? With the negative space.

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Look at the Negative Space for an Abstract

Learn how to see negative space.
Marion Boddy-Evans

Negative space is the space between objects or parts of an object, or around it. Focusing on the negative space is a great starting point for abstract art as it presents you with shapes.

When you look at this photo, do you see it as two flowers that have been outlined as black? Or do you see it as the blue shapes being outlined in black?

It's hard to focus on the shapes rather than the flowers, but it's a question of habit. With a little practice, you can train your eye to see the negative space, the patterns and shapes this makes.

It's also easier to see without the photo.

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Shapes and Patterns From Negative Space

Forget the original photo, concentrate on the negative space shapes.
Marion Boddy-Evans

With the photo removed, the shapes and patterns that negative space create are more obvious. Without the flowers there the brain doesn't insist on interpreting the shapes as 'flower', though it's likely you'll still find yourself trying to recognize​ objects.

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Filling Negative Space Shapes With Color

Areas of bright color create a Pop Art feel.
Marion Boddy-Evans

So what do you do once you've got the negative space? One direction to explore is filling in the spaces with a single color. Seems simple, like you'd just be coloring in shapes? Well, here are a few things to consider:

  • How will you select the colors? Will you use complementary or adjacent?
  • Will one color dominate the painting (such as the red does in the photo)?
  • Will you outline the shapes with a color (such as the black in the photo), or not?
  • Will you use transparent or opaque pigments?
  • What about texture? Will you use thick paint with visible brush marks?
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Another Way to Start an Abstract: Follow the Contours of the Shapes

Follow the contours of the shapes.
Marion Boddy-Evans

Another direction to explore is following or echoing the contours of the shapes. Start with one color, and paint the lines of the negative spaces. Then select another color and paint another line alongside the red ones, then do it again with another color.

The photo shows this, starting with red, then orange and yellows. The negative space lines from the previous photo have been changed from black to red. The painting doesn't look like much at the moment, but remember, this is just a way into an abstract painting. It isn't the final painting, it's a starting point. You work with it, pursuing it, seeing where it takes you.

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Don't Forget Tone (Lights and Darks)

Consider the tones of the colors you use.
Marion Boddy-Evans

Don't neglect tone when painting an abstract, the lights and darks. If you squint at the photo, you'll see that the tonal range in this abstract at this stage is narrow.

Having such similar tones makes the painting flat, despite the brightness of the colors. Making some areas darker and some lighter will give the painting more vibrancy.

And that gives the next direction to go with the painting... Continue working with the painting in this way, letting it evolve until you got to something that satisfied you.

And if it never does? Well, you've used up some paint and a canvas, that's not crucial. More important is that you've gained some experience, which will be with you when you work on your next painting.

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Another Way to Start an Abstract: Look at the Lines

Use the shape of the petals as a starting point.
Marion Boddy-Evans

Another way to approach painting abstract art from photo is to look at the dominant or strong lines in the image. In this instance, it's the lines of the flower petals, and the flower stems.

Decide on what colors you're going to use. Select one and paint in the lines. Don't use a small brush, use a wide one and be bold with the brushstrokes. The aim isn't to replicate the flower petals nor to worry about following them exactly. The aim is to create a starting point or map for an abstract.

The next step is to do the same again, with other colors.

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Repeat With Other Colors

Forget the photo and play with the pattern.
Marion Boddy-Evans

As you can see, a yellow and then its complementary, purple, have now been added. Just as the red was painted in response to the photo, so the​ yellow was painted in response to the red lines, and the purple in response to the yellow.

Sure, it looks rather like a mop at the moment, or maybe a mutant spider. Or even that a snail crawled through some paint. But, once again, remember the aim is to get you going, this is not intended to be the final painting.

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Keep Going and Build on What Went Before

Let the painting go where it wants to.
Marion Boddy-Evans

Keep going, building on what's already done. But resist the temptation to use too many colors, that easily looks garish.

Consider using different size brushes, different consistency paints, and transparent as well as opaque colors. Don't overthink/intellectualize the process. Go with your instinct. Let the painting evolve.

And if your instinct isn't telling you anything? Well, just start somewhere, put some paint down anywhere. Then some next to it. Then some over both of these. Try a wider brush. Try a narrower brush. Experiment. See what happens.

If you don't like it, paint over it (or scrape it off) and start again. The lower layers of paint will add texture to the new ones.

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The Final Painting, With the Power of the Dark

Don't forget to consider tonal contrast.
Marion Boddy-Evans

When you look at the painting as it was in the last photo and as it is now, can you see that the one evolved from the other? That this final painting was built on what went before?

What's happened to it? Well, for starters, it's got a far more intense dark, which makes the other colors seem more intense too. Then the paint is more watery, free-flowing, splotchy, rather than linear.

So, what do you hope this demo has shown? That you shouldn't expect to go from photo or idea to final painting in 60 seconds. You work with it, you play with it, you let it evolve, you wrestle for control. That you need to allow it be a work-in-progress for some time, rather than stressing about it being a perfect, finished painting.

Now take a look at some more abstract art ideas and get painting!