How to Dye Synthetic Fibers

Aubusson tapestries; dying wool by hand
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Synthetic fibers can be difficult to dye, because they are substances that have been man-made in a laboratory, then mass produced in factories. These materials vary greatly in their chemical makeup, so a specific dye may be required for each type of material.

Nylon can be dyed with an acid dye, just like protein fibers (such as wool and cashmere). 

Polyester can be dyed using a lot of heat. Crayola fabric markers (find them online) can be rubbed onto paper, then ironed onto polyester.

Dip-dying polyester, on the other hand, should only be attempted by professionals or hobbyists that have a lot of experience with dying fabric.

Acrylic is difficult to dye and should only by dyed by professionals.

Rayon (viscose) is a processed cellulose fiber and can be dyed with fiber reactive dyes, just like natural cellulose fibers.

Spandex cannot be dyed at home.

Combined fabrics can make dying more complicated. Nylon/Cotton blends, for example, can be dyed using an all-purpose dye, because these dyes contain both acid dyes (for the nylon) and fiber reactive dyes (for the cotton).