What Does a Victim Advocate Do?

Learn About the Salary, Required Skills, & More

Image shows two women on a couch, where one is crying and the other is other her tissues and has her hand on her shoulder. Text reads: "A day in the life of a victim advocate: Counsel crime victims and witnesses; stand by victims during court proceedings; transport victims to court; assist victims when filing protective orders; median annual salary: $49,470"

Image by Brianna Gilmartin © The Balance 2019

A victim advocate acts as a liaison between a crime victim and the criminal court. The advocate advises the victim as to how the criminal justice system works through its processes.

Victims need to understand their legal rights and be aware of what will happen next as their case is adjudicated. They must relive their traumas repeatedly during police investigations and the subsequent trial for the criminal justice system to work. Victims must recount their version of events in police interviews and court testimony. Advocates do all they can to mitigate the effects of rehashing the trauma.

Victim Advocate Duties & Responsibilities

Victim advocates have a wide range of duties, all geared toward helping crime victims cope with the trauma that the crime has brought about and navigate the criminal justice system. These responsibilities can include:

  • Counsel crime victims and witnesses.
  • Coordinate with staff at providing organizations.
  • Transport victims to court.
  • Stand by victims during court proceedings.
  • Assist victims when filing protective orders.
  • Help victims seek restitution.

Victim advocates keep statistics on the people they serve and the services they provide to them. These statistics help them and their management develop budgets, allocate staff, and plan contracts. Statistics are also provided to other entities, such as courts, police departments, and researchers.

Victim advocates may also refer victims to other government agencies or nonprofits that have the expertise and capacity to provide necessary services. They recruit providers to expand the breadth and depth of available services. They notify victims when their offenders have been transferred to other correctional facilities, have parole hearings, or are released from jail or prison.

Victim Advocate Salary

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the income for social workers in general in 2018 were:

  • Median Annual Salary: $49,470 ($23.78/hour)
  • Top 10% Annual Salary: More than $81,400 ($39.13/hour)
  • Bottom 10% Annual Salary: Less than $30,750 ($14.78/hour)

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2018

Victim advocates might incur costs, such as gasoline and auto maintenance for travel, that may not be reimbursed by employers. Advocates might also come out of pocket for victims for small expenses such as meals or other assistance when funds aren't readily available from the government.

Education, Training & Certification

Victim advocates are employed by police departments, prosecutor offices, criminal courts, and nonprofit organizations. Other than the ones who work in nonprofits, advocates are selected through the normal government hiring process.

  • Education: Most postings for victim advocate positions require a bachelor’s degree with some relevant experience, and a master’s degree is preferred. Victim advocates tend to have degrees in social work, psychology, or criminal justice.
  • Background Checks: These positions may require more extensive background checks than most other government jobs given the sensitive and confidential information victim advocates access in their daily work.

Victim Advocate Skills & Competencies

Certain qualities and skills will help you succeed as a victim advocate:

  • Communication skills: This is a highly verbal profession. Choosing and using the right words can be critical to a victim's peace of mind. Bilingual skills are a plus, especially in geographic areas with diverse populations.
  • Interpersonal skills: A capacity for compassion and empathy is critical.
  • Problem-solving skills: An analytical mind is needed to weigh and assess the best options for victims in various situations.
  • Organizational skills: Victim advocates must accurately and meticulously maintain records and make them available to others, sometimes on a moment's notice.

Job Outlook

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics anticipates job growth for social workers, in general, to be in the area of 16% through 2026, which is faster than average for all occupations.

Work Environment

Victim advocates may work in an office, a victim's home, hospital, shelter, or clinic at any given hour on any given day. Police officers, detectives, and crime scene investigators sometimes call victim advocates to crime scenes to counsel individuals minutes or hours after a crime has taken place.

This can be a mobile profession, but some have an office for their home base and they may counsel people in the office. Victim advocates also help victims by telephone in an emergency, or by email or text.

Work Schedule

This is generally a full-time occupation, although about 20% of all social workers, in general, worked part-time in 2016 according to the BLS. Victim advocates, in particular, may be summoned to help at a moment's notice on off hours, but they can be scheduled for on-call duty on a rotating basis to deal with such situations.

How to Get the Job


If this field interests you but you're not in a position to attend school, check out the list of online schools provided by Criminal Justice Programs. The site offers links to the schools for more information.


The National Center for Victims of Crime has job postings specific to this career.

Comparing Similar Jobs

Some similar jobs and their median annual pay include: 

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2018